R D K Thomas. Journal of Paleontology. Lawrence: Jul 2007. Vol. 81, Edisi 4; pg. 800, 5 pgs

Abstrak (Ringkasan)

Following up on the Council's recent discussions of ways in which the Society might act effectively to counter the growing influence of "intelligent design" and creationism, President Bottjer had met with "ghost-busters" Eugénie Scott and Glenn Branch, Director and Deputy Director of the National Center for Science Education, who work full-time on this issue. Reviewing the fund balances within the investment account, Mark Patzkowsky noted that an option to contribute annual gifts to unrestricted funds had been added to the list of funds with specified purposes shown on renewal notices and on the membership website. In addition to an appeal to rank-and-file PS members, the campaign needs to find ways to identify people with the capacity to give substantial gifts, and to make contacts with potential corporate donors.

Karin Barber. Africa. Edinburgh: 2008. Vol. 78, Edisi 3; pg. 327, 7 pgs

Abstrak (Ringkasan)

The core of scientific study would be anthropological and linguistic, and Lugard saw a useful future for research into African local law and custom, land tenure systems and changes in consumption patterns, among other topics (Lugard 1928). Such texts may include stories, songs, dramas, riddles, proverbs, historical and other traditions, descriptions of social institutions and customs, myths and religion in its every aspect (Lugard 1928: 4) In the journal itself, this programme was followed mainly by means of a section headed 'The Voice of Africa', made up of short texts which included, during the first few years of the journal's life, popular songs from Mombasa, Kikuyu proverbs, Xhosa intsomi, and a Chopi love-song.

P Qin, P Jepsen, B Nørgård, E Agerbo, et al. Psychological Medicine. Cambridge: Nov 2009. Vol. 39, Edisi 11; pg. 1867, 7 pgs

Abstrak (Ringkasan)

Background: Poisoning with weak analgesics is a major public health problem because of easy accessibility of the compounds; however, few studies have investigated their influence on subsequent suicide in the context of subjects' psychiatric status and other factors.

Method: This nested case-control study was based on the entire Danish population including all 21 169 suicide cases and 423 128 matched population controls. Data on hospital admissions for poisoning and confounding factors were retrieved from national medical and administrative registries. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute relative risk.

Results: A prior hospital admission for poisoning with weak non-opioid analgesics significantly increased the risk of subsequent suicide [crude incidence rate ratio (IRR) 24.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 22.1-27.6], and the effect of paracetamol poisoning was substantially stronger than that of poisoning with salicylates or non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This association could not be explained by confounding from socio-economic or psychiatric factors. The elevated risk was extremely high during the first week following the overdose (adjusted IRR 738.9, 95% CI 173.9-3139.1), then declined over time but still remained significantly high 3 years later (adjusted IRR 4.2, 95% CI 3.5-5.0). Moreover, a history of weak analgesic poisoning significantly interacted with a person's psychiatric history, increasing the risk for subsequent suicide substantially more for persons with no history of psychiatric hospitalization than did it for those with such a history.

Conclusions: A history of non-fatal poisoning with weak analgesics is a strong predictor for subsequent suicide. These results emphasize the importance of intensive psychiatric care of patients following overdose. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]


Abstrak (Ringkasan)

Background: Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of negative academic outcomes. However, relatively few studies in this area have been based on long-term longitudinal designs and community-based settings. This study examined the link between childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms (HI-s) and subsequent academic achievement in a community setting, controlling for other behavioural symptoms, socio-economic status (SES) and environmental factors at baseline.

Method: The sample consisted of 1264 subjects (aged 12 to 26 years at follow-up) recruited from the longitudinal GAZEL Youth study. Psychopathology, environmental variables and academic outcomes were measured through self-reports. Multivariate modelling was performed to evaluate the effects of childhood HI-s and other risk factors on academic achievement 8 years later.

Results: HI-s independently predicted grade retention [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-5.39], failure to graduate from secondary school (adjusted OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.43-4.05), obtaining a lower-level diploma (adjusted OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.84-4.89), and lower academic performance. These results remained significant even after accounting for school difficulties at baseline. Negative academic outcomes were also significantly associated with childhood symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), even after accounting for adjustment variables.

Conclusions: This longitudinal survey replicates, in a general population-based setting, the finding of a link between HI-s and negative academic outcomes. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]